In a bowl, combine coconut milk and peanut butter powders, brown sugar, garlic powder, and salt; transfer to a 1-qt. resealable bag. Combine freeze-dried vegetables, onion flakes, and mushrooms in a second 1-qt. bag. Seal curry paste in a small plastic bag.
Pour 1 cup water into bag with dried vegetables; seal and set aside 15 to 20 minutes to rehydrate.
Meanwhile, in a 2-qt. saucepan, bring 4 to 5 cups water to simmering. Add rice, set lid slightly ajar on pan, and simmer rapidly, adjusting heat as needed, until grains look cooked, 10 to 15 minutes. Lift bags from water, draining water from them, and set on a plate. Cover with another plate and set aside. Drain all but 1 cup water from pan.
Cut a hole in bag with curry paste and squeeze into hot water. Pour in coconut powder mixture and stir until well blended. Stir in rehydrated vegetables. Cook curry over medium heat, stirring, until steaming, about 3 minutes.
Cut open rice bags and pour onto plates. Spoon curry next to rice and sprinkle with peanuts. Cut lime into wedges and add to plates.
*Wilderness Family Naturals organic coconut milk powder is perfect for curries ($20/1 lb.; wildernessfamilynaturals.com). Bell Plantation PB2 powdered peanut butter has roasted flavor ($4/6.5 oz.; natural-foods stores and walmart.com). Harmony House Foods freeze-dried and dehydrated vegetables (such as carrots, green beans, and corn) taste great as snacks and in stews (from $2.95/4 oz.; harmonyhousefoods.com). Find dried onion flakes with the spices at well-stocked grocery stores, and red curry paste in the international aisle.