Make the Vinaigrette: Pound the garlic to a paste with a mortar and pestle. Add anchovies and pound again. Add the mustard, vinegar, lemon, salt, and pepper and stir to combine. Transfer to a small bowl. Stir in the olive oil and taste. Adjust seasoning as you wish.
Make the croutons: Preheat oven to 325°F. Use your hands to tear the bread into bite-size pieces and place them in a mixing bowl. Drizzle the bread with a generous amount of olive oil, about 1⁄2 cup, a pinch of salt and some black pepper, and toss it around until fully coated. Lay the croutons out on a parchment-lined sheet tray and bake them for about 20 minutes, checking and rotating them halfway through.
Assemble the salad: Toss chicories with salt and pepper, a few tablespoons of vinaigrette, a big handful of Parmesan, and the torn croutons.