Place red and green peppers in a 10- by 15-inch pan. Broil about 4 inches from heat until pepper skins are charred and blistered all over, turning as needed, 15 to 20 minutes. Cool. Pull off and discard skins, stems, and seeds. Chop red and green peppers separately.
In a food processor or blender, purée 3/4 of the red peppers until smooth.
In a 6- to 8-quart pan over high heat, combine 1 teaspoon olive oil and the garlic. Stir often until garlic is limp, about 1 minute. Add onion, clam juice, wine, 1 teaspoon habanero vinegar, and red pepper purée. Cover and bring to a boil.
Discard any gaping mussels that do not close when shells are tapped. Add mussels to pan, cover, and cook until shells pop open, 5 to 10 minutes. With a slotted spoon, transfer mussels to wide bowls.
Add chopped green and red peppers to broth; bring to a boil. Add parsley and season mixture to taste with salt and more habanero vinegar. Ladle over mussels. Drizzle each serving with olive oil to taste.