Put oven rack in top third of oven and preheat to 450°. Combine cauliflower, garlic, shallot, ginger, anchovies, tomatoes, chile flakes, and 8 tbsp. oil in a bowl. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
Transfer to a rimmed baking sheet, spread in a single layer, and roast until cauliflower is just tender and beginning to brown on the edges, about 15 minutes. Sprinkle with parsley.
Heat remaining 1 tbsp. oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Carefully crack eggs, one at a time, into hot oil. Season eggs to taste with salt and pepper. Fry until edges begin to brown and white is almost set near the yolk, about 1 minute. Flip eggs and cook 15 seconds more for over easy.
Divide cauliflower among 4 wide, shallow bowls. Top each with a fried egg.