Put shrimp, salt, and pepper in a pot and add cold water to just cover shrimp. Bring water to a boil, then reduce heat to a simmer and cook until shrimp are bright pink and tails are curled, about 1 minute. With a slotted spoon, transfer shrimp to a colander and let cool.
Put cellophane noodles in a medium pot and cover with hot water. Cover pot and set aside until noodles are softened, at least 15 minutes. Drain noodles and (using kitchen scissors) cut into 2- to 3-inch pieces. Return noodles to pot, drizzle with rice vinegar, and toss. Cover and set aside.
In a small bowl, mix chile flakes and lime juice and let sit several minutes. Add garlic, sugar, and fish sauce; whisk until sugar is dissolved. Transfer sauce to a serving dish.
To assemble wraps, arrange some noodles in the middle of each lettuce leaf and top with 1 shrimp. Garnish with carrot, basil, cilantro, mint, and peanuts. Tuck up the bottom of each leaf and fold sides inward to eat. Drizzle with or dip into sauce.
Note: Nutritional analysis is per serving.