Drain and rinse beans; set aside. Drain chiles and reserve 1/2 cup of each soaking liquid; set aside.
Heat a large pot over medium-low heat. Add oil, then onion, carrot, bell pepper, jalapeño, garlic, and 1/2 tsp. salt. Stir frequently on medium-low heat until liquid is released and vegetables start to stew down.
Add the paprikas, chili powder, cayenne, cumin, black pepper, onion powder, tomato paste, beans, and tomatoes and stir to incorporate.
In a medium bowl, use an immersion blender to purée the chiles, the reserved chile soaking liquids, 1 1/2 tbsp. vinegar, the chipotle in adobo, brown sugar, 1 1/2 tsp. salt, and 3 tbsp. water. Add mixture to pot, bring to a simmer, and simmer lightly for 1 1/2 hours.
Add corn and 1/3 cup water to pot, bring back to a simmer, and let simmer lightly for 1 hour.
Remove pot from heat. Stir in the chocolate, 1/2 tsp. salt, and the remaining 3 tbsp. vinegar. Serve warm, topped with garnishes, if using.