In a bowl, cover vermicelli with boiling water. Let sit until tender, 5 to 8 minutes. Drain; rinse with cold water. Cut into 10-in. lengths.
Bring a 4-qt. pot of water to a boil and cook wheat noodles until tender, 2 to 4 minutes; drain and set aside. Heat 2 tbsp. oil in a large wok over medium heat. Fry 1 tbsp. garlic until light golden, 30 seconds. Strain garlic and oil into a bowl and set both aside.
Add remaining 1/4 cup oil to hot wok and swirl to coat. Add remaining 1 tbsp. garlic and cook until fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add onion and cabbage and increase heat to medium-high. Cook, stirring occasionally, until vegetables begin to soften, 3 minutes. Add carrot; cook, stirring, until carrot begins to soften, 1 minute.
Increase heat to high. Add tofu, reserved noodles, soy sauce, pepper, and broth to wok. Cook, stirring occasionally, until tofu is heated through and liquid has reduced by about half, about 5 minutes. Stir in reserved 2 tbsp. garlic oil. Sprinkle fried garlic on noodles and serve with lemon wedges for squeezing.
*Look for the words "pancit Canton" on the label.
Note: Nutritional analysis is per serving.