Heat oil in a 6- to 8-qt. pot over high heat. Add ginger and garlic and stir-fry until fragrant, 30 seconds to 1 minute. Add spices, chiles, and chile bean paste and fry, stirring, 1 minute to release flavors.
Add broth and bring to a boil, covered; then lower heat and simmer, covered, 30 minutes to blend flavors.
*Find at East Asian markets or online.
Make ahead: 1 day, chilled, or 3 months, frozen.