Remove and discard excess fat from chicken; rinse thighs and pat dry. Cut sausages into 1/2-inch-thick slices.
Cut or tear bread into 1/2-inch chunks. Whirl in a food processor or blender into coarse crumbs; you should have 1/2 cup. In a 5- to 6-quart nonstick pan over medium-high heat, stir crumbs in 1/2 teaspoon olive oil until lightly browned and crisp, about 5 minutes. Scrape into a bowl.
Return pan to high heat; add remaining 1/2 teaspoon oil. When hot, add chicken and sausages; turn occasionally to brown on all sides, 4 to 6 minutes total. As chicken and sausages are browned, transfer to a plate. Add onion and carrots to pan; stir often until onion is limp, about 5 minutes.
Add broth, thyme, bay leaf, beans, chicken, and sausages; cover and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to low and simmer, stirring occasionally, until chicken is no longer pink in center of thickest part (cut to test), 5 to 7 minutes.
Spoon cassoulet into shallow bowls and sprinkle with toasted bread crumbs and parsley. Add salt to taste.