Preheat oven to 425°. Mix pancetta, fennel, garlic, sugar, and 2 tbsp. oil on a rimmed baking sheet. Roast together, stirring often, until mixture is starting to brown and soften, about 10 minutes. Add ciabatta and sprinkle mixture with pepper. Roast until bread is toasted and fennel is softened, about 10 minutes more.
Meanwhile, heat remaining 1 tbsp. oil in a large nonstick frying pan over medium-high heat. Crack eggs into pan, cover, and fry until whites are set, about 3 minutes.
Mix warm bread mixture with arugula and divide among 4 plates. Set an egg on top of each.