In a 5- to 6-quart pan over high heat, bring 3 quarts water to a boil. Add linguine and stir occasionally until barely tender to bite, 2 to 3 minutes.
Meanwhile, in a 10- to 12-inch frying pan over medium-high heat, stir onions and rosemary in oil until onions are limp, 1 to 2 minutes. Add artichoke hearts, broth, wine, cream, and lemon peel; stir until boiling, 1 to 2 minutes.
Drain pasta and return to pan. Add artichoke sauce, parsley, and salt and pepper to taste. Lift with two spoons to mix. (If pasta has cooled, stir over medium heat until hot.) Pour into a wide serving bowl or distribute among plates. Serve with lemon wedges to squeeze over pasta.
Variation: Substitute sliced red and yellow bell peppers for the artichoke hearts, or mushrooms for the artichokes and sherry for the white wine.