Start lamb: Pat chops dry with paper towels. In a small bowl, stir together ground chiles, salt, black pepper, and 2 tbsp. olive oil and massage over chops. Chill at least 30 minutes and up to 11/2 hours.
Meanwhile, make lentils: Rinse lentils in a fine-mesh strainer under cold running water. Heat vegetable oil in a medium saucepan over medium-high heat. Add onion and sauté until translucent, 4 to 5 minutes. Add garlic and ginger and cook, stirring, until fragrant, 30 to 45 seconds. Stir in whole chiles if using, cumin, turmeric, black pepper, thyme, and oregano and cook 30 seconds more. Add tomato and cook 2 minutes, stirring occasionally.
Add lentils, 1/2 tsp. salt, and 1 1/4 cups water. Increase heat to high and bring to a rolling boil, then lower heat and cook at a bare simmer, covered, until lentils are tender, 15 to 20 minutes. Taste and adjust seasoning, if necessary. Keep warm.
Sauté lamb chops: Heat remaining 2 tbsp. olive oil in a nonstick or cast-iron skillet over medium-high heat. Add chops and cook until well browned on each side (including bone side) and internal temperature registers 145° for medium-rare (12 to 13 minutes). Watch closely at the end, as the temperature will rise rapidly.
Pour lentils into a wide serving bowl and top with lamb.