Rinse asparagus, snap off and discard tough ends, and cut remaining stalks diagonally into 1 1/2-inch pieces. Rinse scallops well and pat dry; if wider than 1 1/2 inches, cut in half.
In a 12-inch nonstick frying pan or 14- to 15-inch wok over high heat, combine asparagus and 1/3 cup water. Stir often just until asparagus is tender-crisp when pierced, 3 to 4 minutes. Pour asparagus into a bowl.
To pan, add oil, ginger, garlic, jalapeño chilies, and chili flakes. Stir until sizzling, about 1 minute. Add scallops and stir often for 1 minute longer. Add wine. Stir until scallops are opaque but still moist-looking in center of thickest part (cut to test), 2 to 3 minutes. With a slotted spoon, transfer scallops to bowl.
Boil liquid in pan until reduced to 1/2 cup, 5 to 7 minutes. Reduce heat, add butter, and stir just until melted, about 1 minute. Return asparagus and scallops to pan; stir until hot, about 2 minutes. Pour at once into a serving bowl. Add salt and pepper to taste.