Heat 1 tbsp. oil in a large frying pan over medium-high heat. Rub chicken with 1/2 tsp. salt and the pepper and oregano. Cook until golden on one side, 3 minutes. Flip and cook until golden on the other side, 3 minutes. Transfer to a plate.
Add remaining 1 tbsp. oil and the carrots to pan. Cook carrots until pale golden, about 4 minutes, stirring often. Add garlic and cook until just fragrant, 1 minute. Add broth, vinegar, jalapeños, and 1/4 cup water; bring to a boil, then reduce heat to maintain a steady simmer. Fit chicken between carrots and cook, covered, 10 minutes.
Add onion, cover, and cook until chicken is cooked through and onion and carrots are tender-crisp, about 5 minutes more. Transfer chicken and vegetables to a platter, leaving a little liquid in pan.
Add beans, cumin, remaining salt, and half the cilantro to pan. Cook until hot and liquid is slightly reduced. Transfer to platter and sprinkle with remaining cilantro.