In a 5- to 6-quart pan over medium heat, stir nuts often until golden, 4 to 5 minutes. Pour out of pan.
Pour 2 1/2 to 3 quarts water into pan, cover, and bring to a boil over high heat.
Meanwhile, in a wide bowl, mix soy sauce, vinegar, sesame oil, sugar, and chili oil.
When water boils, stir in pasta. Cook, uncovered, 3 minutes. Stir in peas and shrimp. Cook until pasta is just tender to bite and shrimp are pink, 1 to 2 minutes longer. Drain well.
Add pasta mixture, cilantro, and green onions to soy dressing and mix well. Sprinkle with nuts.