Squeeze juice of 1 lemon into a bowl of cold water. Prepare artichokes as shown at right and halve pieces again lengthwise; drop into bowl as you go. Set aside.
Melt 2 tbsp. butter in a large frying pan over medium heat and add crumbs. Cook, stirring often, until light golden and crisp, 5 minutes. Transfer to a bowl and set aside; wipe pan clean. Drain artichokes.
Heat a pot of water to boiling. Meanwhile, heat 2 tbsp. butter and 1 tbsp. oil in frying pan over medium heat. Add artichokes and 1/2 tsp. salt and stir to coat; cook, covered, turning once, until artichokes are light golden and tender, 10 minutes. Transfer to a bowl.
Melt remaining 1 tbsp. butter in pan, add garlic, and cook, stirring often, until fragrant, about 1 minute. Add wine and 1 tbsp. lemon juice and cook until slightly reduced, about 3 minutes. Add sautéed artichokes and simmer while pasta cooks.
Cook pasta as package directs, adding favas to water at the same time (if using peas, add only in the last minute or two). Drain, reserving about 1 cup pasta water. Add pasta and favas to artichokes in pan.
Stir in chives, pepper, and remaining 1/2 tsp. salt and 1 tbsp. oil. Cook until heated through, adding pasta water as necessary to moisten. Drizzle with oil, stir in half the bread crumbs, and transfer to a platter. Sprinkle with remaining crumbs and serve with more oil if you like.
*Whirl bread in a food processor to make crumbs. To shell and peel fresh favas, remove beans from pods, then boil beans in salted water 2 minutes. Tear beans open at round end and pop out from tough skins. Find frozen peeled favas at Middle Eastern markets.
Serves 4 to 6